South African Baseline Study on Financial Literacy

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1 Regional Dissemination Conference on Building Financial Capability South African Baseline Study on Financial Literacy Lyndwill Clarke Head: Consumer Education January 2013 Nairobi, Kenya

2 Outline Why a baseline study Measurement challenges in SA From OECD Pilot to FSB Baseline (The Questionnaire) Study methodology (Sampling) Some Findings Findings per Domain How to use findings Way forward 2

3 Why a Baseline Study Develop and implement a survey of financial literacy of adults in South Africa consistent with emerging measurement best practice internationally Identifying potential needs and gaps and groups at risk Developing a composite financial literacy score for monitoring purposes Inform the elements of a National Strategy for SA OECD Financial literacy definition: a combination of awareness, knowledge, skills, attitude and behaviours necessary to make sound financial decisions and ultimately achieve individual financial wellbeing 3

4 Measurement Challenges in SA Heterogeneous Middle Income Country (MIC) with one of world s highest income inequality levels apartheid history and inequality of opportunity Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003: South African students maths and sciences scores ranked lowest of 50 countries surveyed (Reddy 2006) Poverty level, 2008 (%) South African average poverty headcount (54%) First and third world economies in SA Poverty: 54% below national poverty line in 2008; large disparities by race (Leibbrandt et al. OECD 2010) Labour market: vast inequalities that characterize both access to and the quality of employment. Unemployment : 24% (Q4, 2010) 28% (black) vs. 6% (white) 4 4

5 From Pilot to Baseline Study OECD Questionnaire Content Behaviour 9 Q Knowledge 8 Q Attitudes 4 Q Financial inclusion Sociodemographic information Keeping track of money Making ends meet Choosing and using products Short and long term planning Simple and compound interest Inflationtime value of money Risk and return Risk diversification Propensity to save vs spend Time preference (present vs future) Risk preference (explanatory variable) Awareness of products Holding and using products Savings habits Age Gender Education Work Income 5

6 Questionnaire Transformation BEHAVIOUR 9 FINANCIAL CONTROL 8(23) KNOWLEDGE 8 ATTITUDE 4 FINANCIAL PLANNING 5(18) PRODUCTS CHOICE 12(63) FINANCIAL INCLUSION FINANCIAL KNOWLEDGE 8 (35)

7 FSB Questionnaire Content FINANCIAL CONTROL 23Q FINANCIAL PLANNING 18 Q PRODUCTS CHOICE 63 Q FINANCIAL KNOWLEDGE 35 Q SOCIO- DEMOGRAPHIC Personal Money Management Financial Reserve Funds Awareness of Products Simple and Compound Interest Age Gender Meeting Financial Needs Emergency Financial Planning Holding Products Inflation-time Value of Money Language Province Income Household Budgets Propensity to Save vs Spend Choosing and Using products Risk, Diversification and Return Rural/Urban Education Long-term Financial Goals Retirement Planning Selecting Advice Givers Self-Rated Knowledge Work Living std.

8 ANALYTICAL GUIDELINES FOLLOWED TO CONSTRUCT THE INDEX The theoretical conceptual framework used in this study was derived from the OECD which specifies certain questions to be used in order to be able to determine scores. In measuring financial literacy in the various domains, certain questions had to be isolated and included as core measures. Each subgroups of question was converted to a scale to enable the researchers to compare and plot findings of the various domains on a single platform. Financial control Financial planning Choosing products Financial Knowledge Q1; Q5; Q16-Q18; Q27; Q29; Q38 (8 Questions) Q19; Q32; Q35; Q36; Q70 (5 Questions) Q42-Q43;Q51-Q52;Q64-Q65;Q71-Q72;Q98- Q100; Q102 (12 Questions) Q108-Q115 (8 Questions)

9 Baseline Study Domains Financial control Financial planning Financial Literacy Choosing financial products Knowledge & understanding

10 Study Methodology Survey conducted by Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) Nationally representative of the population 16 years and older living in private households in the 9 provinces Primary sampling units: 500 census enumerator areas (EAs), stratified by province, geography type and majority population group Secondary sampling units: 7 household visiting points randomly selected per EA One respondent 16+ years randomly selected per household Of 3,500 addresses issued 2,972 interviews achieved Responses to the survey voluntary and confidential, collected by face-to-face interview Data collection: September-October

11 Findings: Managing Money Making ends meet 44% personally experienced income shortfalls in the previous year Two common coping responses: borrowing from family/friends (57%); cutting back on spending or doing without (36%) nominal reliance of financial products. 48% find it difficult to cover expenses and pay bills in a typical month. Attitudes to saving and spending South Africans have a broadly favourable view of their approach to financial management tend not to make impulsive purchases, pay bills on time, closely watch personal finances. 36% experienced lack of food to eat 39% went without necessary medicine or 11 treatment 38% no energy source to cook food

12 Findings: Financial planning Forms of savings in last year (multiple response): % of cases 30% Saving cash at home or in your wallet Paying money into a savings account 26% Building up a balance of money in your bank account 19% Saving in a stokvel or other informal savings club 11% Giving money to family to save on your behalf 9% Buying financial investment products, other than pension funds 5% Or saving in some other way (including remittances, buying livestock or property) 4% None of the above 6% (Do not know) 17% (Refused to answer) 8% 12 Significant majority saved in at least one type of savings instrument Question produced considerable item non-response (25%)

13 Findings: Retirement Planning Options included in financial plan for retirement (% of cases) 13% 48 Government old age pension 33 Work-place pension 23 Personal retirement savings plan recognise the need to work beyond retirement age 13 Continue to work after retirement age 48% 10 Financial support from children 9 Financial support from spouse / partner 60% among those with low living standards, low education and rural dwellers. 8 Financial support from wider family 6 Use inheritance 4 Moving to a cheaper area Moving to a cheaper property in same 3 Drawing income from own business 3 Sell non-financial assets 2 Sell financial assets 1 Other 2 27% 10 (Don t know) Relying on family members 2 (Refused) 0 adults plan to draw on a government pension those with no schooling and rural residents

14 Choosing savings and investment products Savings account ATM card Pension fund Mzansi account Stokvel / savings club Credit Card Post Office savings account 6 Education policy / plan Keep cash / savings at home Provident fund 49 6 Debit card / Cheque card Fixed deposit bank account 48 5 Investment / savings policy 47 9 Retirement annuity 42 9 Garage / petrol card 42 3 Home loan from big bank 41 3 Shares on stock exchange 38 2 Savings book at bank None of the above 0 Significant respondents have banking products, but relatively low holding of other products Heard of products Currently holds 38 2 Unit trusts Product holding 41 3 Informal money guard Relatively good awareness of very basic bank products; low awareness of other formal products such as shares and unit trusts Current / Cheque account Awareness

15 Choosing insurance products Life insurance or life cover Vehicle or car insurance Medical aid scheme Belong to a burial society Cellphone insurance 61 9 Funeral cover through undertaker/funeral parlour 53 9 Hospital cash plan 52 5 Funeral policy with an insurance company 50 8 Funeral policy with a bank - including Post Bank 44 6 Homeowners insurance on building or house structure 42 5 Disability insurance or cover 40 2 Insurance that pays your loan or borrowing when you die 35 3 Funeral cover from an spaza shop or stokvel 21 2 Funeral cover from any other source None of the above Don't know / Refused 0 of adult South Africans have some form of funeral insurance (formal or informal) Household content insurance 40% Heard of products Currently hold

16 Financial Advice Normal source of financial advice 26% ask friends 18% approach banks, 4% independent brokers, and 13% other financial advisors Large difference by living standard: Poor are more reliant on family, friends and informed community members. Getting quality advice 65% report no problem getting relevant and good advice; 8% experience difficulty; Recent advice from financial professional 78% did not seek professional financial advise in the last year 13% sought advice on savings /investments and 8% in relation to insurance. 18% do not ask anyone for help 50% 35% ask family members ask professionals 16 1 % In low LSM rely on independent brokers compared to 27% in high LSMs

17 Financial Control Domain Someone with high financial control tends to be involved in daily financial decision-making processes, exhibits careful approach to personal finances, prefers saving over spending money, and lives in a household that budgets and is able to make ends meet. 17

18 Financial Control Domain Score - 58 Limpopo Mpumalanga 80 Gauteng North West 70 KwaZulu-Natal Free State Male Female16-19 years years years years years 60 Northern Cape years 50 Eastern Cape 70+ years 40 Western Cape Black African 30 Rural farms Coloured 20 Rural, trad. auth. areas Indian 10 Urban informal White 0 Urban formal Married (customary only) Not working, not looking Married (civil only) Student Married (both customary & civil) Retired Widow/widower Unable to work Divorced/separated Looking after the home Never married Looking for work Low living standard Paid employment (<30 hours/ week) Medium living standard Paid employment (30 hours+/week) High living standard Self-employed (<30 hours/week) No schooling Self-employed (30 hours+/week) Primary Tertiary Some secondary Matric or equivalent Financial control 18 South African avg. (M=58)

19 Financial Planning Domain Someone with a high financial planning score tends to set financial goals and work hard to meet them, prefers to save for the long term and worries about tomorrow, has emergency funds in place and has managed to save recently (through a formal savings product or informal means). 19

20 Financial Planning Domain Score - 53 Financial Planning South African avg. (M=53) NW GP MP LP KZN FS NC EC WC Rural farms Rural, trad auth areas Urban informal Urban formal Male Female Black African 30 Coloured 20 Indian 10 White 0 Married (customary only) Not working, not looking Married (civil only) Student Married (both) Retired Widow/widower Unable to work (illness) Divorced/separated Looking after home Never married Looking for work Paid employment (<30 hrs/week) Paid employment (30 hrs+/week) Self-employed (<30 hrs/week) Self-employed (30 hrs+/week) Tertiary Low living std. Matric 20 Medium living std. High living std. No schooling Primary Some secondary

21 Product Choice Domain A higher product choice score is given to someone... with a broad awareness of different types of banking, credit/loan, savings and investment, and insurance products; holding at least one of each of the four product types mentioned above; who believes they have a clear understanding of their product needs and who undertakes detailed research before choosing a product; who has no regrets about recent financial product decisions (last year) and who has not taken an unsuitable product (last 5 years) 21

22 Product Choice Domain Score - 45 NW GP MP LP KZN FS Male NC Female EC WC 70+ Black African 30 Rural farms Coloured 20 Rural, trad auth areas Indian 10 Urban informal White 0 Urban formal Married (customary only) Not working, not looking Married (civil only) Student Married (both) Retired Widow/widower Unable to work (illness) Divorced/separated Looking after home Never married Looking for work Low living std. Paid employment (<30 hrs/week) Paid employment (30 hrs+/week) Self-employed (<30 hrs/week) Self-employed (30 hrs+/week) Tertiary Product Choice Matric Medium living std. High living std. No schooling Primary Some secondary 22 South African avg. (M=45)

23 Financial Knowledge and Understanding Domain Someone with high financial knowledge and understanding has a familiarity with most or all of the basic financial concepts as well as the concepts below: Basic mathematical division Effects of inflation Interest paid on loans Interest on deposits Compound interest Risk of high return investments Effects of inflation on cost of living Risk diversification 23

24 Knowledge and Understanding Domain Score - 56 NW GP MP LP KZN FS NC Male EC 40 WC Female Black African 30 Rural farms Coloured 20 Rural, trad auth areas Indian 10 Urban informal White 0 Urban formal Married (customary only) Not working, not looking Married (civil only) Student Married (both) Retired Widow/widower Unable to work (illness) Divorced/separated Looking after home Never married Looking for work Paid employment (<30 hrs/week) Paid employment (30 hrs+/week) Self-employed (<30 hrs/week) Self-employed (30 hrs+/week) Tertiary Low living std. Matric Knowledge & understanding24 Medium living std. High living std. No schooling SomePrimary secondary South African avg. (M=56)

25 Overall Financial Literacy Score NW GP MP LP South Africa KZN FS 80 Male 70 Female NC EC WC Rural farms Black African 20 Rural, trad auth areas Coloured 10 Urban informal Indian 0 Urban formal White Not working, not looking Married (customary only) Student Married (civil only) Retired Married (both) Unable to work (illness) Widow/widower Looking after home Divorced/separated Looking for work Never married Paid employment (<30 Low living std. Paid employment (30 Self-employed (<30 hrs/week) Self-employed (30 hrs+/week) Tertiary Matric Overall Financial literacy score Financial Control Medium living std. High living std. No schooling Some Primary secondary Financial Planning 25 Product Choice Knowledge

26 Using the Financial Literacy Survey to help design tailored interventions Example A: year-olds Higher than average knowledge domain score but lower than average on other three domains due to lifecycle effect Need to make sure this cohort receives targeted financial education messaging through schools about financial control and money management planning for the future making informed and appropriate product decisions Ensure that bring about cohort effect that increases societal financial literacy and well-being over time Equipping youth with financial knowledge and skills so that, as they make the transition into adulthood, they are able to make informed choices to improve their long-run financial well-being 26

27 Financial Literacy in SA Financial Control Financial planning FINANCIAL LITERACY Choosing financial products Knowledge & understanding 56 27

28 Baseline Study & National Strategy Financial Education Policy and Strategy: Risk-based approach Survey data and measures assist in evidence-based policy-making by. identifying target groups helping to design initiatives tailored to these groups Also assisted to: Show which socio-demographic groups are being reached Which messages are getting through to risk groups Way forward Repeat every 5 years, Annual monitoring using 35 core questions as part of South African Social Attitudes Survey (SASAS) 28

29 Thank you 29

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