# Introduction to Algorithmic Trading Strategies Lecture 8

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1 Introduction to Algorithmic Trading Strategies Lecture 8 Risk Management Haksun Li

2 Outline Value at Risk (VaR) Extreme Value Theory (EVT)

3 References AJ McNeil. Extreme Value Theory for Risk Managers Blake LeBaron, Ritirupa Samanta. Extreme Value Theory and Fat Tails in Equity Markets. November 2005.

4 Risks Financial theories say: the most important single source of profit is risk. profit risk. I personally do not agree.

5 What Are Some Risks? (1) Bonds: duration (sensitivity to interest rate) convexity term structure models Credit: rating default models

6 What Are Some Risks? (2) Stocks volatility correlations beta Derivatives delta gamma vega

7 What Are Some Risks? (3) FX volatility target zones spreads term structure models of related currencies

8 Other Risks? Too many to enumerate natural disasters, e.g., earthquake war politics operational risk regulatory risk wide spread rumors alien attack!!! Practically infinitely many of them

9 VaR Definition

10 Expected Shortfall Suppose we hit a big loss, what is its expected size?

11 VaR in Layman Term VaR is the maximum loss which can occur with certain confidence over a holding period (of days). Suppose a daily VaR is stated as \$1,000,000 to a 95% level of confidence. There is only a 5% chance that the loss the next day will exceed \$1,000,000.

12 Why VaR? Is it a true way to measure risk? NO! Is it a universal measure accounting for most risks? NO! Is it a good measure? NO! Only because the industry and regulators have adopted it. It is a widely accepted standard.

13 VaR Computations Historical Simulation Variance CoVariance Monte Carlo simulation

14 Historical Simulations Take a historical returns time series as the returns distribution. Compute the loss distribution from the historical returns distribution.

15 Historical Simulations Advantages Simplest Non parametric, no assumption of distributions, no possibility of estimation error

16 Historical Simulations Dis Advantages As all historical returns carry equal weights, it runs the risk of over /under estimate the recent trends. Sample period may not be representative of the risks. History may not repeat itself. Cannot accommodate for new risks. Cannot incorporate subjective information.

17 Variance CoVariance Assume all returns distributions are Normal. Estimate asset variances and covariances from historical data. Compute portfolio variance.,

18 Variance CoVariance Example 95% confidence level (1.645 stdev from mean) Nominal = \$10 million Price = \$100 Average return = 7.35% Standard deviation = 1.99% The VaR at 95% confidence level = x = The VaR of the portfolio = x 10 million = \$327,360.

19 Variance CoVariance Advantages Widely accepted approach in banks and regulations. Simple to apply; straightforward to explain. Datasets immediately available very easy to estimate from historical data free data from RiskMetrics Can do scenario tests by twisting the parameters. sensitivity analysis of parameters give more weightings to more recent data

20 Variance CoVariance Disadvantages Assumption of Normal distribution for returns, which is known to be not true. Does not take into account of fat tails. Does not work with non linear assets in portfolio, e.g., options.

21 Monte Carlo Simulation You create your own returns distributions. historical data implied data economic scenarios Simulate the joint distributions many times. Compute the empirical returns distribution of the portfolio. Compute the (e.g., 1%, 5%) quantile.

22 Monte Carlo Simulation Advantages Does not assume any specific models, or forms of distributions. Can incorporate any information, even subjective views. Can do scenario tests by twisting the parameters. sensitivity analysis of parameters give more weightings to more recent data Can work with non linear assets, e.g., options. Can track path dependence.

23 Monte Carlo Simulation Disadvantages Slow. To increase the precision by a factor of 10, we must make 100 times more simulations. Various variance reduction techniques apply. antithetic variates control variates importance sampling stratified sampling Difficult to build a (high) multi dimensional joint distribution from data.

24 100 Year Market Crash How do we incorporate rare events into our returns distributions, hence enhanced risk management? Statistics works very well when you have a large amount of data. How do we analyze for (very) small samples?

25 Fat Tails

26 QQ A QQ plots display the quintiles of the sample data against those of a standard normal distribution. This is the first diagnostic tool in determining whether the data have fat tails.

27 QQ Plot

28 Asymptotic Properties The (normalized) mean of a the sample mean of a large population is normally distributed, regardless of the generating distribution. What about the sample maximum?

29 Intuition Let,, be i.i.d. with distribution. Let the sample maxima be. What is?

30 Convergence Suppose we can scale the maximums and change the locations (means). There may exist non negative sequences of these such that, is not a point lim lim lim

31 Example 1 (Gumbel) Let,.,.

32 Example 2 (Fre chet) Let,.,. / / / /

33 Fisher Tippett Theorem It turns out that can take only one of the three possible forms. Fre chet Φ 1 Gumbel Λ 1 Weibull Ψ 1

34 Maximum Domain of Attraction Fre chet Fat tails E.g., Pareto, Cauchy, student t, Gumbel The tail decay exponentially with all finite moments. E.g., normal, log normal, gamma, exponential Weibull Thin tailed distributions with finite upper endpoints, hence bounded maximums. E.g., uniform distribution

35 Why Fre chet? Since we care about fat tailed distributions for financial asset returns, we rule out Gumbel. Since financial asset returns are theoretically unbounded, we rule out Weibull. So, we are left with Fre chet, the most common MDA used in modeling extreme risk.

36 Fre chet Shape Parameter is the shape parameter. Moments of order greater than Moments of order smaller than are infinite. are finite. Student t distribution has 2. So its mean and variance are well defined.

37 Fre chet MDA Theorem, Fre chet if and only if the complement cdf is slowly varying function lim 1, 0 This restricts the maximum domain of attraction of the Fre chet distribution quite a lot, it consists only of what we would call heavy tailed distributions.

38 Generalized Extreme Value Distribution (GEV) lim 1 tail index Fre chet: Gumbel: Weibull:,,

39 Generalized Pareto Distribution simply an exponential distribution Let,.,,

40 The Excess Function Let be a tail cutoff threshold. The excess function is defined as: 1

41 Asymptotic Property of Excess Function Let. For each, If lim lim sup sup, we have, if and only if, 0, 0 Applications: to determine,, etc.

42 Tail Index Estimation by Quantiles Hill, 1975 Pickands, 1975 Dekkers and DeHaan, 1990

43 Hill Estimator,, : the number of observations in the (left) tail Mason (1982) shows that, is a consistent estimator, hence convergence to the true value. Pictet, Dacorogna, and Muller (1996) show that in finite samples the expectation of the Hill estimator is biased. In general, bigger (smaller) gives more (less) biased estimator but smaller (bigger) variance.

44 POT Plot

45 Pickands Estimator, /

46 Dekkers and DeHaan Estimator,,,,,

47 VaR using EVT For a given probability the VaR estimate is calculated by inverting the excess function. We have: Confidence interval can be computed using profile likelihood.

48 ES using EVT

49 VaR Comparison

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