Women in the Egyptian Labor Market An Analysis of Developments from 1988 to 2006

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Women in the Egyptian Labor Market An Analysis of Developments from 1988 to 2006"

Transcription

1 Women in the Egyptian Labor Market An Analysis of Developments from 1988 to B Y R A G U I A S S A A D P O P U L A T I O N C O U N C I L A N D F A T M A E L - H A M I D I U N I V E R S I T Y O F P I T T S B U R G H

2 Introduction Despite significant closing of the gender gap in education and health, Egypt ranks very poorly in international comparison of gender equality 120 of 128 countries in most recent WEF report 2 Worst ranking is in the women s economic opportunity component of the gender equality index (120) Better ranking in educational attainment (101) and in health and survival (81) How much progress have Egyptian women made in the labor market in recent decades? Focus will be on women in wage and salary employment, especially outside the now contracting government sector

3 Outline I. Trends in labor force participation and unemployment by gender II. The evolution of the structure of overall employment by gender III. Women s Wage and Salary Employment I. By Education II. Over the Life Cycle IV. Conclusions 3

4 4 I. TRENDS IN LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT BY GENDER

5 The Measurement of female labor force participation is subject to error. Available evidence suggests that it has declined slightly since Trends in Market Labor Force Participation Rates (%), by Gender and Year, Ages Rural Urban Total adj 2006 Males Females

6 Unemployment Rate by Gender and Urban/Rural Location, Ages Standard Unemployment Definition and Market Labor Force Definition. Female unemployment rates are 4 times as high as male rates, but declined at the same rate. Male 6.8 urban rural Total Female 22.8 urban 20.0 rural Total Total urban rural Years Total Percent

7 7 II. THE EVOLUTION OF THE STRUCTURE OF OVERALL EMPLOYMENT BY GENDER

8 Female Employment is dominated by government employment and non-wage work (mostly self-employment and unpaid family work in home-based enterprises). Together they make up 81% of female employment. The structure has not changed much since Structure of Employment By Gender % 33% 26% 45% 45% 4% 14% 9% 8% 5% 15% 4% 4% 2% 19% 9% 9% 8% 4% 6% 3% 2% 11% 7% 6% 52% 27% 36% 36% 22% adj 2006 Non-Wage Work Irregular Wage Informal Regular Wage Formal Public Enterprises Government Male Female

9 Urban female employment is dominated by government work, but has a growing share of private sector wage work (both formal and informal). Rural female employment is dominated by non-wage work % 17% 9% 7% 61% 12% 55% 68% 68% 22% 21% 9 Structure of Female Employment by Urban/Rural Location 44% 45% 6% 9% 4% 6% 4 36% 1998 Adj Adj Adj 2006 Non-Wage Work Irregular Wage Informal Regular Wage Formal Public Enterprises Government Urban Rural All

10 Total employment grew at about the same rate for men and women, but female employment is growing faster than male employment in private wage and salary work Average Annual Growth Rate of Employment (%) by Sector and Sex, males females

11 The overall female share of employment has remained constant at 23 percent, but governmental and non-governmental wage & salary employment has feminized 35% 3 25% 2 15% 5% 33% 31% 31% 29% 23% 23% 12% 12% 13% 11% 11% 12% 11% 6% 7% 11 Female Share of Employment by Sector, 1998,

12 12 III.1 WOMEN S WAGE AND SALARY EMPLOYMENT BY EDUCATION

13 Women s participation in Wage & Salary Work is strongly determined by educational attainment, but participation has declined correcting for education, essentially due to declines in public sector participation All Wage and Salary Work Public Sector Education Education

14 formal wage and salary work is also strongly associated with education, but informal wage and salary work is more weakly associated and peaks for technical secondary graduates. Informal employment rates are rising for educated women 14 9% 8% 7% 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% Formal Wage & Salary Work 9% 8% 7% 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% Informal Wage Work Education Education Note Change of scale

15 15 III.2 WOMEN S WAGE & SALARY EMPLOYMENT OVER THE LIFE CYCLE

16 As public sector hiring slows, there is a marked aging of the public sector labor force. Notice the shift of the age distribution to the right. Only young women (mostly unmarried) seem to work in the private sector, with little shift over time 6 Employment-to-Population Ratios for Public Sector Employment Urban Females 16 6 Employment-to-Population Ratios for Wage and Salary Employment Urban Females Age Poly. (1988) Poly. (1998) Poly. (2006) Age Poly. (1988) Poly. (1998) Poly. (2006)

17 Marital status is a strong determinant of the form of wage & salary work women engage in. The majority of working ever married women are public sector workers. Nearly half of never married working women in 2006 were informal private sector workers Distribution of Female Wage and Salary Workers by Marital Status and Year Ever Married Never Married Ever Married Never Married Informal Formal Public Sector

18 Never married women save a significant proportion of their income, but their ability to save is declining over time. Ever married women save little Proportion of Income Saved by Marital Status for Female Wage and Salary Workers All More than half Between quarter and half Less than quarter None Never Married Ever Married

19 The proportion of never married W&S workers desiring to work after marriage is lower in the private sector, but is rising over time. Same is true for confidence in being able to do so Proportion of Never Married Female W&S Workers Desiring to Work After Marriage by Sector, 1998, Proportion of Never-Married Female W& S Workers Confident in their Ability to Work After Marriage Among Those Desiring to Work by Sector, 1998, Public Sector Formal Informal 0 Public Sector Formal Informa;

20 Proportion of never married female W&S workers believing that work prior to marriage increases marriage prospects has risen significantly over time. But the proportion of married female W&S workers whose husband accepts their work is not changing much Proportion of Never Married Female W&S Workers Believing that Work Increases Marriage Propsects by Sector, 1998, 2006 Public Sector Formal Informal Proportion of Married Female W&S Workers whose Husbands' Firmly Accept or Accept their Work by Sector, 1998, 2006 Public Sector Formal Informal

21 Fewer married female W&S workers are able to get pregnant on the job in private sector, but proportion is increasing. Paid maternity leaves are getting shorter and are non-existent in informal employment Proportion of Married Female W&S Workers who Were Working During Last Pregnancy by Sector, 1998, 2006 Public Sector Formal Informal Proportion of Married Female W&S Workers Who Were Pregnant on the Job Who Recieved a Paid Maternity Leave Public Sector Formal Informal more than 12 weeks 6-12 weeks 4-6 weeks 2-4 weeks no maternity leave

22 LE/month formal sector workers are most reliant on paid child care and pay the most for it when they get it Proportion of Married Female W&S Workers with children Under Six by Type of Child Care Paid Unpaid Other Unpaid Family 22 Average Amount Paid in 2006 for those who Paid for Child Care Public Sector Formal Informal Public Sector Formal Informal

23 Conclusions 23 Although female labor force participation rates are stable or slightly declining, they should have in fact increased due to rising educational attainment levels Correcting for education, participation rates are dropping, primarily due to fewer opportunities in the government Unemployment rates are also dropping due to the rising futility of waiting for government employment Non-governmental wage employment is growing and the female share in it is rising slightly

24 Conclusions Marital status has a strong impact on the kind of W&S work women are able to perform. Married women are almost exclusively in the public sector 24 The majority of unmarried women who work to do in order to save (probably for marriage) but their ability to save has declined with time Desire and confidence in ability to work after marriage depends on the sector of work, but is rising for private sector workers

25 Conclusions 25 A rising proportion of never married women think work increases their marriage prospects, but the proportion of married women whose husband s accepts their work is stagnant Public sector is clearly more accommodating of women s reproductive roles, but the length of paid maternity leaves in that sector is falling Formal private sector workers with children under six are most likely to use paid child care and they pay the most for it Informal private sector work makes no concessions to women s reproductive roles

Women in the Labor Force: A Databook

Women in the Labor Force: A Databook Cornell University ILR School DigitalCommons@ILR Federal Publications Key Workplace Documents 2-2013 Women in the Labor Force: A Databook Bureau of Labor Statistics Follow this and additional works at:

More information

Women in the Labor Force: A Databook

Women in the Labor Force: A Databook Cornell University ILR School DigitalCommons@ILR Federal Publications Key Workplace Documents 9-2007 Women in the Labor Force: A Databook Bureau of Labor Statistics Follow this and additional works at:

More information

Women in the Labor Force: A Databook

Women in the Labor Force: A Databook Cornell University ILR School DigitalCommons@ILR Federal Publications Key Workplace Documents 12-2011 Women in the Labor Force: A Databook Bureau of Labor Statistics Follow this and additional works at:

More information

Women in the Labor Force: A Databook

Women in the Labor Force: A Databook Cornell University ILR School DigitalCommons@ILR Federal Publications Key Workplace Documents 12-2010 Women in the Labor Force: A Databook Bureau of Labor Statistics Follow this and additional works at:

More information

Reasons for China's Changing Female Labor Force Participation Rate Xingxuan Xi

Reasons for China's Changing Female Labor Force Participation Rate Xingxuan Xi 7th International Conference on Education, Management, Information and Mechanical Engineering (EMIM 2017) Reasons for China's Changing Female Labor Force Participation Rate Xingxuan Xi School of North

More information

Changing Population Age Structures and Sustainable Development

Changing Population Age Structures and Sustainable Development Changing Population Age Structures and Sustainable Development Report of the Secretary-General to the 50 th session of the Commission on Population and Development (E/CN.9/2017/2) Population Division,

More information

Alice Nabalamba, Ph.D. Statistics Department African Development Bank Group

Alice Nabalamba, Ph.D. Statistics Department African Development Bank Group Alice Nabalamba, Ph.D. Statistics Department African Development Bank Group Why study Gender Inequality in Africa? 1. The role women play in development Achieving gender equality is central to attaining

More information

Determinants of Female Labour Force Participation Dynamics: Evidence From 2000 & 2007 Indonesia Family Life Survey

Determinants of Female Labour Force Participation Dynamics: Evidence From 2000 & 2007 Indonesia Family Life Survey Determinants of Female Labour Force Participation Dynamics: Evidence From 2000 & 2007 Indonesia Family Life Survey Diahhadi Setyonaluri PhD Student Australian Demographic and Social Research Institute

More information

ZAMBIA. SWTS country brief January Main findings of the ILO SWTS

ZAMBIA. SWTS country brief January Main findings of the ILO SWTS ZAMBIA SWTS country brief January 2017 The ILO Work4Youth project worked with IPSOS Zambia to implement two rounds of the School-to-work transition survey (SWTS) in late 2012 and 2014. The results of the

More information

Social Security: Is a Key Foundation of Economic Security Working for Women?

Social Security: Is a Key Foundation of Economic Security Working for Women? Committee on Finance United States Senate Hearing on Social Security: Is a Key Foundation of Economic Security Working for Women? Statement of Janet Barr, MAAA, ASA, EA on behalf of the American Academy

More information

2017 Gender Pay. 4 April 2018

2017 Gender Pay. 4 April 2018 2017 Gender Pay 4 April 2018 2017 Gender pay gap: Summary The statutory Gender Pay Gap Reporting analysis, which is provided in accordance with statutory reporting requirements, illustrates the gap between

More information

Labour force, Employment and Unemployment Year 2017

Labour force, Employment and Unemployment Year 2017 Labour force, Employment and Unemployment Year 2017 Introduction 1. This ninth issue of the Economic and Social Indicators presents a set of estimates of labour force, employment and unemployment for the

More information

MALAWI. SWTS country brief October Main findings of the ILO SWTS

MALAWI. SWTS country brief October Main findings of the ILO SWTS MALAWI SWTS country brief October 2015 The ILO Work4Youth project worked with the National Statistical Office of Malawi to implement two rounds of the School-to-work transition survey (SWTS) in 2012 (August

More information

2000 HOUSING AND POPULATION CENSUS

2000 HOUSING AND POPULATION CENSUS Ministry of Finance and Economic Development CENTRAL STATISTICS OFFICE 2000 HOUSING AND POPULATION CENSUS REPUBLIC OF MAURITIUS ANALYSIS REPORT VOLUME VIII - ECONOMIC ACTIVITY CHARACTERISTICS June 2005

More information

SERBIA. SWTS country brief. December Main findings of the ILO SWTS

SERBIA. SWTS country brief. December Main findings of the ILO SWTS SERBIA SWTS country brief December 2016 The ILO Work4Youth project worked with the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia to implement the School-towork transition survey (SWTS) in 2015 (March April).The

More information

Demographic Changes and PNG s Labour Market Developments: Challenges and Prospects

Demographic Changes and PNG s Labour Market Developments: Challenges and Prospects Demographic Changes and PNG s Labour Market Developments: Challenges and Prospects Manoj K. Pandey ANU Crawford School Development Policy Centre & UPNG SBPP Division of Economics 1 Introduction Demographic

More information

the working day: Understanding Work Across the Life Course introduction issue brief 21 may 2009 issue brief 21 may 2009

the working day: Understanding Work Across the Life Course introduction issue brief 21 may 2009 issue brief 21 may 2009 issue brief 2 issue brief 2 the working day: Understanding Work Across the Life Course John Havens introduction For the past decade, significant attention has been paid to the aging of the U.S. population.

More information

MONTENEGRO. SWTS country brief. December Main findings of the ILO SWTS

MONTENEGRO. SWTS country brief. December Main findings of the ILO SWTS MONTENEGRO SWTS country brief December 2016 The ILO Work4Youth project worked with the Statistical Office of Montenegro to implement the School-to-work transition survey (SWTS) in 2015 (September October).

More information

FEMALE LABOUR SUPPLY IN BANGLADESH: CONTINUITY AND CHANGE

FEMALE LABOUR SUPPLY IN BANGLADESH: CONTINUITY AND CHANGE FEMALE LABOUR SUPPLY IN BANGLADESH: CONTINUITY AND CHANGE by Dr. Simeen Mahmud, BRAC Institute of Governance and Development Dr. Sayema Haque Bidisha, Dhaka University Presented at PES Conference, Delhi

More information

Toward Active Participation of Women as the Core of Growth Strategies. From the White Paper on Gender Equality Summary

Toward Active Participation of Women as the Core of Growth Strategies. From the White Paper on Gender Equality Summary Toward Active Participation of Women as the Core of Growth Strategies From the White Paper on Gender Equality 2013 Summary Cabinet Office, Government of Japan June 2013 The Cabinet annually submits to

More information

Chapter 2: Twenty years of economy and society: Italy between the 1992 crisis and the current difficult economic situation

Chapter 2: Twenty years of economy and society: Italy between the 1992 crisis and the current difficult economic situation Chapter 2: Twenty years of economy and society: Italy between the 1992 crisis and the current difficult economic situation Demography, family, lifestyle and human capital 1. Italy s resident population

More information

Lecture 19: Trends in Death and Birth Rates Slide 1 Rise and fall in the growth rate of India is the result of systematic changes in death and birth

Lecture 19: Trends in Death and Birth Rates Slide 1 Rise and fall in the growth rate of India is the result of systematic changes in death and birth Lecture 19: Trends in Death and Birth Rates Slide 1 Rise and fall in the growth rate of India is the result of systematic changes in death and birth rates from high levels to moderate levels. In the beginning

More information

1. ECONOMIC ACTIVITY

1. ECONOMIC ACTIVITY 1. ECONOMIC ACTIVITY This section presents the data characterizing the economic activity of 15-75 years old population during the observation period. 1.1. BASIC CONCEPTS (DEFINITIONS) Economically active

More information

A STATISTICAL PROFILE OF WOMEN IN THE SASKATCHEWAN LABOUR MARKET

A STATISTICAL PROFILE OF WOMEN IN THE SASKATCHEWAN LABOUR MARKET A STATISTICAL PROFILE OF WOMEN IN THE SASKATCHEWAN LABOUR MARKET A report prepared for: Status of Women Office Saskatchewan Ministry of Social Services by Sask Trends Monitor April 2017 Table of Contents

More information

SHARE OF WORKERS IN NONSTANDARD JOBS DECLINES Latest survey shows a narrowing yet still wide gap in pay and benefits.

SHARE OF WORKERS IN NONSTANDARD JOBS DECLINES Latest survey shows a narrowing yet still wide gap in pay and benefits. Economic Policy Institute Brief ing Paper 1660 L Street, NW Suite 1200 Washington, D.C. 20036 202/775-8810 http://epinet.org SHARE OF WORKERS IN NONSTANDARD JOBS DECLINES Latest survey shows a narrowing

More information

Exiting Poverty: Does Sex Matter?

Exiting Poverty: Does Sex Matter? Exiting Poverty: Does Sex Matter? LORI CURTIS AND KATE RYBCZYNSKI DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO CRDCN WEBINAR MARCH 8, 2016 Motivation Women face higher risk of long term poverty.(finnie

More information

GAO GENDER PAY DIFFERENCES. Progress Made, but Women Remain Overrepresented among Low-Wage Workers. Report to Congressional Requesters

GAO GENDER PAY DIFFERENCES. Progress Made, but Women Remain Overrepresented among Low-Wage Workers. Report to Congressional Requesters GAO United States Government Accountability Office Report to Congressional Requesters October 2011 GENDER PAY DIFFERENCES Progress Made, but Women Remain Overrepresented among Low-Wage Workers GAO-12-10

More information

REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA. SWTS country brief. December Main findings of the ILO SWTS

REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA. SWTS country brief. December Main findings of the ILO SWTS REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA SWTS country brief December 2016 The ILO Work4Youth project worked with the National Bureau of Statistics of Moldova to implement two rounds of the School-to-work transition survey

More information

newstats 2016 NWT Annual Labour Force Activity NWT Bureau of Statistics Overview

newstats 2016 NWT Annual Labour Force Activity NWT Bureau of Statistics Overview newstats NWT Bureau of Statistics Released: March 27, 2017 2016 NWT Annual Labour Force Activity Overview The Labour Force Survey is a source of monthly estimates of employment and unemployment. On a yearly

More information

Table of Contents. ABP Statistical Information on participants 2017

Table of Contents. ABP Statistical Information on participants 2017 ABP Statistical Information on participants 2017 Table of Contents Percentage distribution by age of Dutch working population and ABP active participants 3 Number of participants 4 Index of number of participants

More information

Massachusetts Household Survey on Health Insurance Status, 2007

Massachusetts Household Survey on Health Insurance Status, 2007 Massachusetts Household Survey on Health Insurance Status, 2007 Division of Health Care Finance and Policy Executive Office of Health and Human Services Massachusetts Household Survey Methodology Administered

More information

Labor Participation and Gender Inequality in Indonesia. Preliminary Draft DO NOT QUOTE

Labor Participation and Gender Inequality in Indonesia. Preliminary Draft DO NOT QUOTE Labor Participation and Gender Inequality in Indonesia Preliminary Draft DO NOT QUOTE I. Introduction Income disparities between males and females have been identified as one major issue in the process

More information

LEBANON. SWTS country brief. December Main findings of the ILO SWTS

LEBANON. SWTS country brief. December Main findings of the ILO SWTS LEBANON SWTS country brief December 2016 The ILO Work4Youth project worked with the Consultation and Research Institute of Lebanon to implement the School-to-work transition survey (SWTS) from November

More information

Gender Pay Differences: Progress Made, but Women Remain Overrepresented Among Low- Wage Workers

Gender Pay Differences: Progress Made, but Women Remain Overrepresented Among Low- Wage Workers Cornell University ILR School DigitalCommons@ILR Federal Publications Key Workplace Documents 10-2011 Gender Pay Differences: Progress Made, but Women Remain Overrepresented Among Low- Wage Workers Government

More information

Reemployment after Job Loss

Reemployment after Job Loss 4 Reemployment after Job Loss One important observation in chapter 3 was the lower reemployment likelihood for high import-competing displaced workers relative to other displaced manufacturing workers.

More information

Full file at

Full file at TEST BANK Robert J. Lemke Lake Forest College Fall 2008 Labor Economics 5 th Edition George Borjas Chapter Two 1. Who is not counted in the U.S. labor force? A. Persons working 15 hours a week or more

More information

RESULTS OF THE KOSOVO 2015 LABOUR FORCE SURVEY JUNE Public Disclosure Authorized. Public Disclosure Authorized. Public Disclosure Authorized

RESULTS OF THE KOSOVO 2015 LABOUR FORCE SURVEY JUNE Public Disclosure Authorized. Public Disclosure Authorized. Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized RESULTS OF THE KOSOVO 2015 LABOUR FORCE SURVEY JUNE 2016 Kosovo Agency of Statistics

More information

The Health of Jefferson County: 2010 Demographic Update

The Health of Jefferson County: 2010 Demographic Update The Health of : 2010 Demographic Update BACKGROUND How people live the sociodemographic context of their lives influences their health. People who have lower incomes may not have the resources to meet

More information

The Status of Women in the Middle East and North Africa (SWMENA) Project

The Status of Women in the Middle East and North Africa (SWMENA) Project The Status of Women in the Middle East and North Africa (SWMENA) Project Focus on Yemen Paid Work and Control of Earnings & Assets Topic Brief A project by the International Foundation for Electoral Systems

More information

Married Women s Labor Supply Decision and Husband s Work Status: The Experience of Taiwan

Married Women s Labor Supply Decision and Husband s Work Status: The Experience of Taiwan Married Women s Labor Supply Decision and Husband s Work Status: The Experience of Taiwan Hwei-Lin Chuang* Professor Department of Economics National Tsing Hua University Hsin Chu, Taiwan 300 Tel: 886-3-5742892

More information

Post-Secondary Education, Training and Labour Prepared November New Brunswick Minimum Wage Report

Post-Secondary Education, Training and Labour Prepared November New Brunswick Minimum Wage Report Post-Secondary Education, Training and Labour Prepared November 2018 2018 New Brunswick Minimum Wage Report Contents Section 1 Minimum Wage Rates in New Brunswick... 2 1.1 Recent History of Minimum Wage

More information

Tables and Charts. Numbers Title of Tables Page Number

Tables and Charts. Numbers Title of Tables Page Number Tables and Charts Numbers Title of Tables Page Number 3.1 Human Development Index of Meghalaya and other North Eastern States on the basis of All-India Ranking, 2005 90 3.2 Human Development Indices and

More information

Equal pay for breadwinners

Equal pay for breadwinners istockphoto/sjlocke Equal pay for breadwinners More men are jobless while women earn less for equal work Heather Boushey January 2009 www.americanprogress.org Equal pay for breadwinners More men are jobless

More information

CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web

CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RL33387 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Topics in Aging: Income of Americans Age 65 and Older, 1969 to 2004 April 21, 2006 Patrick Purcell Specialist in Social Legislation

More information

Chapter 02. Labor Supply. Multiple Choice Questions. 1. Who is not counted in the U.S. labor force?

Chapter 02. Labor Supply. Multiple Choice Questions. 1. Who is not counted in the U.S. labor force? Chapter 02 Labor Supply Multiple Choice Questions 1. Who is not counted in the U.S. labor force? A. A person working 15 hours a week or more not for pay. B. A fulltime college student. C. A person working

More information

Demographic Situation: Jamaica

Demographic Situation: Jamaica Policy Brief: Examining the Lifecycle Deficit in Jamaica and Argentina Maurice Harris, Planning Institute of Jamaica Pablo Comelatto, CENEP-Centro de Estudios de Población, Buenos Aires, Argentina Studying

More information

Exiting poverty : Does gender matter?

Exiting poverty : Does gender matter? CRDCN Webinar Series Exiting poverty : Does gender matter? with Lori J. Curtis and Kathleen Rybczynski March 8, 2016 1 The Canadian Research Data Centre Network 1) Improve access to Statistics Canada detailed

More information

The Province of Prince Edward Island Employment Trends and Data Poverty Reduction Action Plan Backgrounder

The Province of Prince Edward Island Employment Trends and Data Poverty Reduction Action Plan Backgrounder The Province of Prince Edward Island Employment Trends and Data Poverty Reduction Action Plan Backgrounder 5/17/2018 www.princeedwardisland.ca/poverty-reduction $000's Poverty Reduction Action Plan Backgrounder:

More information

Survey on Income and Living Conditions (SILC)

Survey on Income and Living Conditions (SILC) An Phríomh-Oifig Staidrimh Central Statistics Office 15 August 2013 Poverty and deprivation rates of the elderly in Ireland, SILC 2004, 2009, 2010 revised and 2011 At risk of poverty rate Deprivation rate

More information

CONVERGENCES IN MEN S AND WOMEN S LIFE PATTERNS: LIFETIME WORK, LIFETIME EARNINGS, AND HUMAN CAPITAL INVESTMENT $

CONVERGENCES IN MEN S AND WOMEN S LIFE PATTERNS: LIFETIME WORK, LIFETIME EARNINGS, AND HUMAN CAPITAL INVESTMENT $ CONVERGENCES IN MEN S AND WOMEN S LIFE PATTERNS: LIFETIME WORK, LIFETIME EARNINGS, AND HUMAN CAPITAL INVESTMENT $ Joyce Jacobsen a, Melanie Khamis b and Mutlu Yuksel c a Wesleyan University b Wesleyan

More information

Fig. 1 Forms of employment desired by casual employees

Fig. 1 Forms of employment desired by casual employees (Male) Under 20 years 20-24 years 25-29 years 30-34 years (Female) Under 20 years 20-24 years 25-29 years 30-34 years 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 (%) Regular employees Part-time employees, casual

More information

2016 Census of Canada

2016 Census of Canada 216 Census of Canada Incomes Results from the latest Census release show that Alberta had the highest median income among the provinces. Alberta s strong economic expansion in recent years, particularly

More information

Working Women in the MENA

Working Women in the MENA Working Women in the MENA December 2017 Objectives The Bayt.com Working Women in the Middle East Survey explores the status of working women in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Among other key insights,

More information

AIST. 22 October Sex Discrimination Commissioner Australian Human Rights Commission Level 3, 175 Pitt St SYDNEY NSW 200. Dear Ms Broderick,

AIST. 22 October Sex Discrimination Commissioner Australian Human Rights Commission Level 3, 175 Pitt St SYDNEY NSW 200. Dear Ms Broderick, 22 October 2012 Sex Discrimination Commissioner Australian Human Rights Commission Level 3, 175 Pitt St SYDNEY NSW 200 Dear Ms Broderick, Application by Rice Warner Thank you for the opportunity to comment

More information

Egyptian Married Women Don t desire to Work or Simply Can t? A Duration Analysis. Rana Hendy. March 15th, 2010

Egyptian Married Women Don t desire to Work or Simply Can t? A Duration Analysis. Rana Hendy. March 15th, 2010 Egyptian Married Women Don t desire to Work or Simply Can t? A Duration Analysis Rana Hendy Population Council March 15th, 2010 Introduction (1) Domestic Production: identified as the unpaid work done

More information

TABLES Table 1. GDSW Budget - Staff by Years (as of June) Staff Number

TABLES Table 1. GDSW Budget - Staff by Years (as of June) Staff Number ANNEXES TABLES Table 1. GDSW Budget - Staff by Years 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 (as of June) Staff Number 53 53 64 61 98 98 Budget 2.119.900$ 2.350.000$ 2.876.000$ 11.022.500$ 86.953.050$ 66.575.750$

More information

WOMEN EMPOWERMENT THROUGH SELF HELP GROUPS : A STUDY IN COIMBATORE DISTRICT

WOMEN EMPOWERMENT THROUGH SELF HELP GROUPS : A STUDY IN COIMBATORE DISTRICT Available online at : http://euroasiapub.org/current.php?title=ijrfm, pp. 36~43 Thomson Reuters Researcher ID: L-5236-2015 WOMEN EMPOWERMENT THROUGH SELF HELP GROUPS : A STUDY IN COIMBATORE DISTRICT Dr.

More information

BROAD DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN LDCs

BROAD DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN LDCs BROAD DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN LDCs DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES are CHALLENGES and OPPORTUNITIES for DEVELOPMENT. DEMOGRAPHIC CHALLENGES are DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES. This year, world population will reach 7 BILLION,

More information

Wage Progression in the UK

Wage Progression in the UK Wage Progression in the UK Monica Costa Dias Robert Joyce DWP meeting, January 2017 Outline Brief overview of recent and planned research relating to earnings progression Women: wages over the lifecycle,

More information

Correlation of Personal Factors on Unemployment, Severity of Poverty and Migration in the Northeastern Region of Thailand

Correlation of Personal Factors on Unemployment, Severity of Poverty and Migration in the Northeastern Region of Thailand Correlation of Personal Factors on Unemployment, Severity of Poverty and Migration in the Northeastern Region of Thailand Thitiwan Sricharoen Abstract This study examines characteristics of unemployment

More information

Retirement Annuity and Employment-Based Pension Income, Among Individuals Aged 50 and Over: 2006

Retirement Annuity and Employment-Based Pension Income, Among Individuals Aged 50 and Over: 2006 Retirement Annuity and Employment-Based Pension Income, Among Individuals d 50 and Over: 2006 by Ken McDonnell, EBRI Introduction This article looks at one slice of the income pie of the older population:

More information

WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN LABOR FORCE: AN ATTEMPT OF POVERTY ALLEVIATION

WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN LABOR FORCE: AN ATTEMPT OF POVERTY ALLEVIATION WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN LABOR FORCE: AN ATTEMPT OF POVERTY ALLEVIATION ABSTRACT Background: Indonesia is one of the countries that signed up for 2030 agenda of Sustainable Development Goals of which one

More information

GENDER INEQUALITY IN THE INDONESIAN LABOUR MARKET

GENDER INEQUALITY IN THE INDONESIAN LABOUR MARKET GENDER INEQUALITY IN THE INDONESIAN LABOUR MARKET Lisa Cameron, University of Melbourne. 24 July 2018 OVERVIEW 1. Female labour market participation; 2. Gender wage gap; 3. Women s Labour Market Transitions.

More information

MAIN LABOUR FORCE SURVEY RESULTS FOR THE THIRD QUARTER OF 2018

MAIN LABOUR FORCE SURVEY RESULTS FOR THE THIRD QUARTER OF 2018 MAIN LABOUR FORCE SURVEY RESULTS FOR THE THIRD QUARTER OF 2018 Main labour market indicators for the third quarter of 2018 The activity rate for population aged 15-64 was 72.5%, by 0.3 percentage points

More information

LABOUR FORCE SURVEY 2017 MAIN RESULTS

LABOUR FORCE SURVEY 2017 MAIN RESULTS LABOUR FORCE SURVEY 2017 MAIN RESULTS In 2017 the number of economically active population aged 15-64 was 3 277.5 thousand and represented 71.3% of population in the same age group. The activity rate (15-64

More information

Submission to House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance Pre-Budget Consultation Giving Priority to Low-Income, Unattached, Women Seniors

Submission to House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance Pre-Budget Consultation Giving Priority to Low-Income, Unattached, Women Seniors 383 Parkdale Avenue Suite 402 Ottawa ( Ontario) K1Y 4R4 Tel. : (613) 729-6668 Fax. : (613) 729-9608 E-mail : casw@casw-acts.ca Submission to House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance Pre-Budget Consultation

More information

The Local Government Pension Scheme (England and Wales) Trivial Commutation. Lump sums paid on or after 1 April 2008

The Local Government Pension Scheme (England and Wales) Trivial Commutation. Lump sums paid on or after 1 April 2008 The Local Government Pension Scheme (England and Wales) Trivial Commutation Lump sums paid on or after 1 April 2008 Date: 21 February 2008 Author: Ian Boonin Table of Contents 1 Introduction and Legislative

More information

The Relationship Between Income and Health Insurance, p. 2 Retirement Annuity and Employment-Based Pension Income, p. 7

The Relationship Between Income and Health Insurance, p. 2 Retirement Annuity and Employment-Based Pension Income, p. 7 E B R I Notes E M P L O Y E E B E N E F I T R E S E A R C H I N S T I T U T E February 2005, Vol. 26, No. 2 The Relationship Between Income and Health Insurance, p. 2 Retirement Annuity and Employment-Based

More information

JORDAN. SWTS country brief. December Main findings of the ILO SWTS

JORDAN. SWTS country brief. December Main findings of the ILO SWTS JORDAN SWTS country brief December 2016 The ILO Work4Youth project worked with the Department of Statistics of Jordan to implement two rounds of the School-to-work transition survey (SWTS) in 2012 13 (December

More information

Pension forecast application form

Pension forecast application form Please do not tack the documents together Pension forecast application form Pension forecast application I would like to receive a forecast for an old-age pension an invalidity pension a survivors pension

More information

Chapter 4 Sex Composition, Age Distribution and Marital Status

Chapter 4 Sex Composition, Age Distribution and Marital Status Chapter 4 Sex Composition, Age Distribution and Marital Status 4.1 Sex Composition The sex ratio of the disabled population at the national level is 129.0 as against 94.7 among the general population indicating

More information

Testimony before the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Heather Boushey, Senior Economist, Center for American Progress Action Fund

Testimony before the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Heather Boushey, Senior Economist, Center for American Progress Action Fund Testimony before the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Heather Boushey, Senior Economist, Center for American Progress Action Fund April 22, 2009 Thank you Acting Chairman Ishimaru for inviting me

More information

CHAPTER.5 PENSION, SOCIAL SECURITY SCHEMES AND THE ELDERLY

CHAPTER.5 PENSION, SOCIAL SECURITY SCHEMES AND THE ELDERLY 174 CHAPTER.5 PENSION, SOCIAL SECURITY SCHEMES AND THE ELDERLY 5.1. Introduction In the previous chapter we discussed the living arrangements of the elderly and analysed the support received by the elderly

More information

Council for Gender Equality A Japanese government consultative body to address important national issues

Council for Gender Equality A Japanese government consultative body to address important national issues The 1st Meeting of the ASEAN +3 Committee on Women Bandar Sri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam Reducing the Feminization of Poverty with the Rights Based Approach Keiko TAKEGAWA Deputy Director-General Gender

More information

3. Work. Number of Employees by Industry and Sex

3. Work. Number of Employees by Industry and Sex 3. Work Number of Employees by Industry and Sex Labour Force Survey, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Note: Attention should be paid to the time-line of the data, as, with revision of

More information

Heather Boushey, Senior Economist, Center for American Progress Action Fund. March 3, 2009

Heather Boushey, Senior Economist, Center for American Progress Action Fund. March 3, 2009 Testimony before the House Committee on Education and Labor, Subcommittee on Workforce Protections Hearing entitled Encouraging Family-Friendly Workplace Policies Heather Boushey, Senior Economist, Center

More information

Demographic and Economic Characteristics of Children in Families Receiving Social Security

Demographic and Economic Characteristics of Children in Families Receiving Social Security Each month, over 3 million children receive benefits from Social Security, accounting for one of every seven Social Security beneficiaries. This article examines the demographic characteristics and economic

More information

MAIN LABOUR FORCE SURVEY RESULTS FOR THE FOURTH QUARTER OF 2013

MAIN LABOUR FORCE SURVEY RESULTS FOR THE FOURTH QUARTER OF 2013 MAIN LABOUR FORCE SURVEY RESULTS FOR THE FOURTH QUARTER OF Main labour market data for the fourth of The activity rate of population aged 15-64 was 68.6%, by 0.7 percentage point higher in comparison with

More information

PAID LEAVE. Communications Kit

PAID LEAVE. Communications Kit PAID LEAVE Communications Kit We will have arrived when every woman can decide for herself how to best find and use her God-given gifts. A woman may choose to have five children and home-school them. She

More information

PROJECTING POVERTY RATES IN 2020 FOR THE 62 AND OLDER POPULATION: WHAT CHANGES CAN WE EXPECT AND WHY?

PROJECTING POVERTY RATES IN 2020 FOR THE 62 AND OLDER POPULATION: WHAT CHANGES CAN WE EXPECT AND WHY? PROJECTING POVERTY RATES IN 2020 FOR THE 62 AND OLDER POPULATION: WHAT CHANGES CAN WE EXPECT AND WHY? Barbara A. Butrica, The Urban Institute Karen Smith, The Urban Institute Eric Toder, Internal Revenue

More information

Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory. Costas Azariadis. Costas Azariadis. Lecture 3: Productivity and Labor

Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory. Costas Azariadis. Costas Azariadis. Lecture 3: Productivity and Labor Lecture 3: Productivity and Labor 1. THE ISSUES a)productivity most important determinant of living standards in the long run 2008 U.S. GDP per worker employed (current $) $100,000 per worker per year

More information

PART-TIME PURGATORY YOUNG AND UNDEREMPLOYED IN AUSTRALIA

PART-TIME PURGATORY YOUNG AND UNDEREMPLOYED IN AUSTRALIA PART-TIME PURGATORY YOUNG AND UNDEREMPLOYED IN AUSTRALIA DECEMBER 2018 Being young, even in one of the most prosperous nations in the world, isn t what it used to be. Negotiating adulthood in the 21st

More information

Focusing a Gender Lens on New Jersey Employment in Challenging Economic Times

Focusing a Gender Lens on New Jersey Employment in Challenging Economic Times Focusing a Gender Lens on New Jersey Employment in Challenging Economic Times Linda Houser Center for Women and Work, Rutgers University New Jersey State Employment and Training Commission Council on Gender

More information

Constrained Geographical Mobility and Gendered Labor Market Outcomes Under Structural Adjustment: Evidence from Egypt

Constrained Geographical Mobility and Gendered Labor Market Outcomes Under Structural Adjustment: Evidence from Egypt Constrained Geographical Mobility and Gendered Labor Market Outcomes Under Structural Adjustment: Evidence from Egypt by Ragui Assaad * University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA and Melanie

More information

Gender Inequality in US and Japanese Businesses. Akin Can Akdogan Liliya Temes Jieun Yang

Gender Inequality in US and Japanese Businesses. Akin Can Akdogan Liliya Temes Jieun Yang Gender Inequality in US and Japanese Businesses Akin Can Akdogan Liliya Temes Jieun Yang The Gray Rhino Highly probable, high-impact yet neglected threat The obvious danger that we often ignore By Michele

More information

IJSE 41,5. Abstract. The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at

IJSE 41,5. Abstract. The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www.emeraldinsight.com/0306-8293.htm IJSE 41,5 362 Received 17 January 2013 Revised 8 July 2013 Accepted 16 July 2013 Does minimum

More information

The Local Government Pension Scheme. Liability for combined benefits - Regulations 29, 48 and 126

The Local Government Pension Scheme. Liability for combined benefits - Regulations 29, 48 and 126 The Local Government Pension Scheme Liability for combined benefits - Regulations 29, 48 and 126 1. Regulation 29 of the Local Government Pension Scheme Regulations 1997 (the LGPS Regulations ) provides

More information

The contribution and benefit preferences of active members of the Ontario Teachers Pension Plan

The contribution and benefit preferences of active members of the Ontario Teachers Pension Plan The contribution and benefit preferences of active members of the Ontario Teachers Pension Plan Prepared for: by: June 2007 IV. Level of awareness and understanding among plan members about the current

More information

Coping with Population Aging In China

Coping with Population Aging In China Coping with Population Aging In China Copyright 2009, The Conference Board Judith Banister Director of Global Demographics The Conference Board Highlights Causes of Population Aging in China Key Demographic

More information

Oman. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR

Oman. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report Oman Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human Development

More information

Daniel Fernández Kranz IE Business School Núria Rodríguez-Planas Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

Daniel Fernández Kranz IE Business School Núria Rodríguez-Planas Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona Daniel Fernández Kranz IE Business School Núria Rodríguez-Planas Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona In the light of the low fertility trends in many industrialized countries, and Given the increased relevance

More information

Social pensions in the context of an integrated strategy to expand coverage: The ILO position

Social pensions in the context of an integrated strategy to expand coverage: The ILO position Social pensions in the context of an integrated strategy to expand coverage: The ILO position Krzysztof Hagemejer Social Security Department 1 The context: Social security is a human right Universal Declaration

More information

The labour force participation of older men in Canada

The labour force participation of older men in Canada The labour force participation of older men in Canada Kevin Milligan, University of British Columbia and NBER Tammy Schirle, Wilfrid Laurier University June 2016 Abstract We explore recent trends in the

More information

CORRELATION OF DEMOGRAPHIC- ECONOMIC EVOLUTIONS IN ROMANIA AFTER THE 2008 ECONOMIC CRISIS

CORRELATION OF DEMOGRAPHIC- ECONOMIC EVOLUTIONS IN ROMANIA AFTER THE 2008 ECONOMIC CRISIS Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov Vol. 6 (55) No. 2-2013 Series V: Economic Sciences CORRELATION OF DEMOGRAPHIC- ECONOMIC EVOLUTIONS IN ROMANIA AFTER THE 2008 ECONOMIC CRISIS Adriana Veronica

More information

EUROPEAN SOCIAL CHARTER. on the 11th national report on the implementation of the European Social Charter THE GOVERNMENT OF FINLAND

EUROPEAN SOCIAL CHARTER. on the 11th national report on the implementation of the European Social Charter THE GOVERNMENT OF FINLAND 25/01/2016 EUROPEAN SOCIAL CHARTER Comments by the Confederation of Finnish Industries (EK), the central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions (SAK), the Finnish Confederation of Professionals (STTK), and

More information

Budget 2012 What Does it Mean for Women s Economic Equality?

Budget 2012 What Does it Mean for Women s Economic Equality? Budget 2012 What Does it Mean for Women s Economic Equality? Budgets are about choices, prioritizing one spending item over another. Funding tax cuts rather than public services, or flashy F-35s rather

More information

Monitoring the Performance of the South African Labour Market

Monitoring the Performance of the South African Labour Market Monitoring the Performance of the South African Labour Market An overview of the South African labour market for the Year ending 2011 5 May 2012 Contents Recent labour market trends... 2 A labour market

More information

Montenegro. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR

Montenegro. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report Montenegro Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human

More information

Family and Work. 1. Labor force participation of married women

Family and Work. 1. Labor force participation of married women Family and Work 1. Labor force participation of married women - why has it increased so much since WW II? - how is increased market work related to changes in the gender wage gap? 2. Is there a time crunch?

More information

Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare Statistics and Information Department

Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare Statistics and Information Department Special Report on the Longitudinal Survey of Newborns in the 21st Century and the Longitudinal Survey of Adults in the 21st Century: Ten-Year Follow-up, 2001 2011 Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare

More information