1 Stress testing Are you for ready for future challenges? 9 July 2015 Jim Lashmar & Jo-Anne Morgan
2 This session Learning from recent events The role of your financial plan The role of the Regulator Using the results
3 Learning from recent events Key issues
4 Learning from Cosmopolitan Cosmopolitan Housing Group was first formed in 2003 to separate student housing activities from the Cosmopolitan Housing Association. This was done through the creation of different subsidiaries. Cosmopolitan Housing Group This was in line with the then regulator, Housing Corporation s (HC), policy requiring that diverse activities be removed from the main housing organisation. Cosmopolitan Housing Association Cosmopolitan Student Homes Cosmopolitan Enterprises Limited At this time Cosmopolitan Housing Association was already undertaking a significant amount of development. It was funding the development of student accommodation through sale and leaseback or lease and leaseback arrangements.
5 Learning from Cosmopolitan Weak governance and management The information provided to the Board in the form of development appraisals was very poor Poor tenant service Significant amount of development Under spending on maintenance of existing properties Off-balance sheet funding, through the creation of a joint venture In May 2012, Cosmopolitan Housing Group was experiencing cash flow problems as expected funding for its overly ambitious development programme was not in place. The gearing loan covenants had been tight for some time, with potential breaches The parent company have given guarantees against a number of leases which meant that the social housing assets of CHA were at risk. There was an overly complicated Group structure, which made it difficult to monitor performance of subsidiaries This was the beginning of the crisis that brought the whole Cosmopolitan Group to the brink of insolvency Cosmopolitan was then bought over by Sanctuary Housing Group
6 Learning from Cosmopolitan The lessons learned for the sector and regulator focus on five themes: Themes Skills and Resources Information Requirements Recommendations and Comments Boards should have the right people with the skills and experience to govern well Housing Associations are to communicate to the HCA key information such as their assets and liabilities in a timely and accurate manner Risk Management The risks that the organisation faces should be clearly understood Mergers The Board needs to be in the control of the merger process, understanding the importance of due diligence How Housing providers and the Regulator should act in a crisis The new regulatory framework takes into account the recommendations of the report
7 Learning from Problem Cases Volume 4 10 Key recommendations Drive out unnecessary complexity Understand the risks that could be fatal Always have a Plan B Be ambitious, but keep perspective Focus on the skills and competence of Board members Create the conditions for effective challenge Engage positively with the regulators Keep an iron grip on performance and compliance Empower and value the Audit Committee Never forget the tenants
8 Key issues What are the key issues that could impact on organisational viability?
9 Where are we now? Sector risk profile Managing a housing development programme Diversification Housing market sales exposure Welfare Reform Existing stock Assets/liabilities New/existing debt Accounting issues Pensions Reduced government grants Complex ways of financing development
10 HCA regulatory judgements Summary of published judgements as at the end of April 2015 (compared to 2014) Governance Viability G V G V G V3 1 0 G4 0 0 V4 0 0 % G2 15% 13% % V2 14% 17%
11 Thoughts on the English Viability ratings There has been a recalibration V2 is now the new V1 In an era of stress testing, economic turbulence, fears about the property market and further cuts to welfare, how can the HCA give a V1 rating? V2s should not be seen as a badge of shame as more landlords push their assets harder to deliver homes without grant
12 Welsh Government regulatory judgements Summary of published judgements as at the end of June 2015 Financial Viability 2015 Pass 30 Pass with closer regulatory monitoring 5 Percentage pass with closer regulatory monitoring 14%
13 The role of the Regulator The role of the Regulator
14 Welsh Government approach to Regulation Proportionality Transparency and openness Consistency Promoting improvement and learning
15 Risk based approach WG will prioritise risks in terms of: The likelihood a risk will materialise The impact - scale and significance - if it did The ability of the housing association to manage and deal with the risk When considering impact, the Welsh Ministers will take into account: Impact on tenants and service users The vulnerability of affected tenants and service users The extent to which the community relies on the association for services and amenities The association s size - the number of homes it manages and the number of tenants it has The amount of public money the association receives How long the association has been operating The amount of private loan finance provided by lenders and committed for the future.
16 Risk based approach Views on the ability of a Housing Association to manage and deal with risks will be informed by: The Association s track record in managing change and improvement, handling challenging issues and making difficult decisions. Confidence in the Board and the senior management team. The Association s track record in dealing with other issues that have been raised as a result of previous contact.
17 Regulator Stress Testing Stress and scenario testing Important area of focus for the Regulator Not prescriptive Multi-variant analysis Test potential serious economic and operational scenarios Leading to failure of the business - tests should effectively kill the organisation Then recovery of the business Designed to assess resilience Mitigation strategies tested What will you test? The big things that would stop you achieving your objectives / break your business What questions will you ask? Stop development - how long would it take and what are the costs? Redundancy / restructure how much would it cost, do we have the cash?
18 The role of your financial plan Financial Plan
19 Elements of stress testing Develop base plan Test individual plan sensitivities Model combined (multivariate sensitivities) Develop operational stress tests Look at what will break the plan HCA requirement for Associations to have: a clear understanding of what would cause their business significant financial distress and plan mitigating strategies to deal with any exposures.
20 Example HA plan outputs Example 5000 unit Association Base plan easily meets covenants 100% 90% 80% Gearing 190% 170% 150% Interest cover 70% 130% 60% 110% 50% 90% 40% 70% 30% 2015/ / / / /20 50% 2015/ / / / /20 Gearing Covenant limit Interest cover Covenant limit
21 Individual Economic Scenarios The following individual key risk scenarios were considered by the association: Rents down 2% on CPI for 5 years Costs rise 2% above rent increase levels LIBOR up 2% years 2 4 Management expenses up 10% years 2 7 Repairs up 750k in years 2 7 Interest cover has been identified as the tightest covenant
22 Results Individual Scenarios Scenario Impact Results Rent increase -2% Reduced income year on year 1-2m in short term, increasing to 5m by year 20 Reduced surplus results in pressure on interest cover covenant. Cost inflation 2% above rent LIBOR up 2% Management Expenses +10% Repairs increase by 750k Increased costs year on year 1-2m in short term, increasing to 5m by year 20 Higher interest costs Additional costs of 1m each year Additional costs of 750k each year Further worsened by borrowing requirement increase at higher cost Higher interest cost puts pressure on interest cover Worsened cashflow results in increased debt and small impact on asset cover / gearing / debt per unit Plan can cope any individual scenario
23 How would the plan get broken? What do we mean by broken? Reduction in Surplus? Out of Cash? Breaching loan covenants?
24 Breaking the Plan The Perfect Storm Individually, NONE of these result in a breach. However, IN COMBINATION, these movements together result in: Scenario Impact Result Perfect Storm Very high impact as costs increase significantly and income decreases. Net impact 5m 2016/17, rising to 50m as interest costs spiral. This assumes development continues at the planned rate which would not be possible. Breach interest cover covenant as surplus reduces and interest costs increase Breach debt covenants as debt increases Due to increased borrowing to cover cashflow issues The Plan is broken..shown in the following graphs
25 Scenario Results Combined costs and reduced income mean additional borrowing is required due to cashflow issues. This increases interest costs and interest cover breach in year 2.
26 Scenarios Results Increased debt results in the gearing covenant being breached in year 12
27 Possible stress-testing issues Housing market Outright sale & shared ownership Social rent policy and market rents Security valued at EUV Security valued at MV-T Costs of working capital Interest rates Stand-alone swaps Cross-default Funding market disruption Counterparty failure Contract performance Loss of major contract Joint venture failure Welfare reform Welfare cap Volatility of cashflows Costs Values & volumes Wages and costs Low inflation Impairment incl. Housing Finance Grant Pensions Investments and security
28 Stress Test 1 The Impact of Welfare Reform Loss of Income Universal credit impacts on rent collection Increase bad debts Employ additional staff to improve collection rates Voids increase Lose Supported People Income and reduce staffing All of these steps result in a reduced cashflow and a reduced surplus
29 Stress Test 1 Loss of Income Step 1 Universal Credit rent collected reduces to 96% (bad debts increase to 4%) - reduction in surplus (Bad Debts increase 900k p.a)
30 Stress Test 1 Step 2 Additional Staff Costs small further reduction (c 200k per annum)
31 Stress Test 1 Step 3 Increased Voids further surplus reduction (600k p.a)
32 Stress Test 1 Step 4 Redundancy Costs and loss of income results in breach in year 2 (total net impact an additional 1.2m). Overall impact over 3m Breach
33 Stress Test 2 The Impact of Legislative Changes Increased Costs Gas boilers need to be replaced impact on cashflow now and surplus in future years (depreciation) CPI decreases to -1%, an all time low reduces income and reduces cash As rent income reduces, property value reduces this reduces asset values and the surplus (through impairment)
34 Stress Test 2 Increased costs Step 1 Legislation requires boilers to be replaced (capital expenditure means cash impact of c 1m, depreciation impact on surplus 100k p.a)
35 Stress Test 2 Reduced Income Step 2 CPI decreases resulting in significant rent income reductions ( 1-2m short term rising to 5m by year 12). The covenant is breached several times. Breach Breach
36 Stress Test 2 - Valuation Step 3 Reduced rents results in impairment of properties, reducing balance sheet value - impacts on Gearing / Asset Cover
37 Breach Implications Lenders could call in debt and seize assets. Most likely implication would be an increase in costs There would be reputational implications for future borrowing requirements. Further pressure on the business plan? Long term viability? Regulatory action / takeover?
38 Using the results Using the results
39 Stress testing outputs The stress testing shows an interest cover breach in 12 months time. What would you do? But there needs to be a plan
40 What is the plan? Review Discretionary Spend How would it be defined? How would it be prioritised? Extent of actions depends on the size of the hole?
41 Recovery Plan Identify the nature of the shock What will it affect CASH? COVENANTS? OR BOTH If Cash, RP could: Approach funders for a revolving credit facility. Delay spend on voids, planned maintenance, adaptations. Review management expenses and stop any discretionary spend. Sell properties as uncharged ones become void. Invoke urgency arrangement processes to make swift effective decisions. If Covenants, RP could: Sell properties as uncharged ones become void. This would have limited effect but could reduce interest costs. Reduce on-going costs as above. As soon as the RP becomes aware of a potential breach, notify the funders of issues and request a waiver. Inform the regulator. Invoke urgency arrangements procedures to enable fast decision making.
42 After the modelling - Be prepared Set in place early warnings & triggers Amend dashboard / KPIs Define internal Golden Rules Build into decision-making processes Review Board skills Revise delegations Check urgency powers
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