1 B142 FEBRUARY 2014 ARE BANK FEES IN JAMAICA TOO HIGH?
3 ARE BANK FEES IN JAMAICA TOO HIGH? David Tennant Department of Economics UWI, Mona February 18, 2014
5 CONTENTS 1. Overview 4 2. Is the Jamaican Case Unique? International Trends in Bank Fees 6 3. Explaining the International Trends in Bank Fees Lessons for the Jamaican Government Appendix 1: Sample Selection Appendix 2: Regression Analysis 34
6 OVERVIEW There has been a recent outcry in Jamaica against the high and increasing fees and charges being levied by banks on some of their services. The fees attracting most attention are those that relate to basic transactions such as withdrawing cash from another bank s ATM or stopping payment on a cheque. Charges on fairly common misdemeanours, such as writing a cheque that subsequently bounces or incurring an overdraft on an account are also frequently identified as being exorbitant. i Because these fees and charges are levied on fairly commonplace activities, the cumulative effect on an individual or firm can be high, and the aggregate macroeconomic effect through heightened transactions costs cannot be ignored. 4 ARE BANK FEES IN JAMAICA TOO HIGH?
7 The timing of the increases in bank fees and charges has also led many observers to cry foul. It has been argued that with the decline in demand for loans during the global crisis and recession, banks resorted to the levying of higher fees to generate revenues, rather than accepting decreased profit margins. ii Others have asserted that as the government sought to reduce economy-wide interest rates through proper macroeconomic management, the banks responded to the expected decline in interest-based revenues by increasing fees and charges. iii What are the driving forces behind these trends in Jamaican bank fees and charges, and can (or should) the government do anything about them? These are some of the difficult questions being tackled by the Economy and Production Committee of Parliament, which is currently investigating the fees being charged by Jamaican financial institutions. This policy brief seeks to inform the debate, by widening the scope of analysis. Instead of focusing on a comparison of fees charged across institutions within Jamaica, this paper argues that the Jamaican case is not unique, and can be informed by international trends in banking. What are the driving forces behind these trends in Jamaican bank fees and charges, and can (or should) the government do anything about them? ARE BANK FEES IN JAMAICA TOO HIGH? 5
8 IS THE JAMAICAN CASE UNIQUE? INTERNATIONAL TRENDS IN BANK FEES A survey of the international news media has revealed considerable discomfort with bank fees in the last five years in countries such as the USA, UK, Canada, Israel, Australia, South Africa, Nigeria, the Czech Republic, Mexico, Jamaica and Barbados. iv Internationally, consumer complaints about bank fees soared in the mid to late 2000s, and have continued unabated in the postglobal crisis period. In many of these countries, the rhetoric against such fees and the banks responsible, has been at least as strong as in Jamaica. As examples, How Banks are Getting Richer off the Poor and Customers Lose Big on Bank Overdraft Fees are headlines of articles posted by the popular websites Forbes.com and ABCNews.com in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Lepetit et al (2008) note that the income earned by banks from fees and commissions has increased significantly in many Western economies since the early 1990s. Figure 1 illustrates Jamaica s conformity to this trend in the latter half of the 2000s. Banks net fees and commissions expressed relative to the value of their deposits, is used as a proxy for profit from fees. The figures were computed for a sample of 703 banks. v These banks were selected so as to adequately represent all regional grouping of countries, and countries from all developmental levels. The sample was also stratified so as to ensure that large, medium-sized and small banks are represented. vi Figure 1 shows that although Jamaican banks began to realize increased profits from fees and commissions about a year later than the general trend for all sampled banks and for upper middle income countries, as of 2008 the trends are quite similar. The increase in profits from fees and commissions between 2010 and 2011 is sharp and common to all categories of countries. vii Figure 1: Net Fees & Commissions as a % of Deposits Source: Computed by author from the Bankscope database Figure 2 provides some preliminary support for the conjecture that Jamaican banks increased fees in a bid to maintain profit levels amidst declining interest revenues. The trends suggest that decreasing net interest income and net fees and commissions caused profits to fall in The banks responded to the declining profits by increasing both net interest income, and net fees and commissions in Note, however, that net fees and commissions decreased slightly between 2008 and 2009 when the increases in net interest income were sufficient to maintain the trend of increasing profits; but rose significantly between ARE BANK FEES IN JAMAICA TOO HIGH?
9 and 2011 to compensate for the decline in net interest income in Figure 2: Trends in Income from Fee vs Interest Revenue Jamaica Source: Computed by author from the Bankscope database This, however, is also not solely a Jamaican phenomenon. Figure 3 shows similar trends for the general average of sampled banks across all the countries. It is clear that net interest income, and net fees and commissions for the general sample of banks trended in opposite directions. When net interest income declined between 2006 and 2007, net fees and commissions increased sharply, but when net interest income rebounded between 2007 and 2009, net fees and commissions decreased sharply; and between 2009 and 2011, the declining net interest income again corresponded with increased net fees and commissions. Figure 3: Trends in Income from Fee vs Interest Revenue - All Countries Source: Computed by author from the Bankscope database ARE BANK FEES IN JAMAICA TOO HIGH? 7
10 Although providing little comfort, the data also support the fact that fees charged by Jamaican banks are not generally significantly higher than those of banks in other parts of the world. Figures 4 to 11 compare the average fees charged by Jamaican commercial banks in with those of banks from other countries. viii The comparisons were made using data on eight common fees charged by a sample of just under 400 banks from about 40 countries. The fees from each country have been converted using the purchasing power parity (PPP) conversion factor, so as to allow for accurate cross-country comparisons. The PPP conversion factor is the rate at which the currency of one country would have to be converted into that of another country to buy the same amount of goods and services in each country. ix Figure 4: Stop Payment Order Figure 5: NSF Fee (Insufficient Funds) ARE BANK FEES IN JAMAICA TOO HIGH?
11 Figure 6: Fees for Withdrawing at ATM Other Than Account Holder s Bank Figure 7: Returned Deposit Fee Figure 8: Fees for Withdrawal from own Institution s ATM ARE BANK FEES IN JAMAICA TOO HIGH? 9
12 Figure 9: Credit Card Annual Fee (Lowest) Figure 10: Credit Card Late Payment Fee (Lowest) Figure 11: Non Interest Overdraft Fee Sources: Figures 4 11 were computed by the author from data compiled through internet searches and telephone interviews 10 ARE BANK FEES IN JAMAICA TOO HIGH?
13 Figures 4 to 6 show that average fees charged by Jamaican banks for stopping payment on a cheque, writing a cheque that is returned for insufficient funds and withdrawing cash at an ATM not owned by the account holder s bank are amongst the lowest for the sampled countries. In figure 7, the average fees charged by Jamaican banks for returned deposits x fall marginally below the median position for countries sampled, and in figures 8 and 9, fees for withdrawal from an account-holder s own ATM and credit card annual fees xi are just above the median position. It is only for credit card late payment fees and overdraft fees (figures 10 and 11) that average fees charged by Jamaican banks are amongst the highest in the sampled countries. Note, however, that for the late payment fees, the number of comparator countries is small due to data unavailability, and, even so, Jamaican fees are lower than those of Barbados and Trinidad. The fact that the average non-interest overdraft fee charged by Jamaican banks is higher than that of the sampled American banks should be paid particular attention. This is because consumer groups and regulators in the USA have red-flagged unarranged overdraft fees. xii In America, each year more than 50 million people overdraw their chequing accounts and pay nearly US$24 billion in overdraft fees, with the most common triggers of these fees being small debit-card transactions. When viewed holistically, it is clear that for most of the commonly charged fees, Jamaican banks compare favourably with the banks sampled from other countries. This should not be taken as an indication that fees are at an acceptable level. To make that determination, other considerations, outside the scope of this brief, would have to be taken into account. However, from the data surveyed, we can conclude that Jamaican bank fees conform to international trends. ARE BANK FEES IN JAMAICA TOO HIGH? 11
14 EXPLAINING THE INTERNATIONAL TRENDS IN BANK FEES The figures highlighted above clearly show that: (i) the increased profits that Jamaican banks have earned from fees in recent years conform to international trends; and (ii) Jamaican bank fees are in line with the world average. The question that however remains is: why are the world averages so high? A recently conducted study has uncovered a number of factors that explain the international trends in the amount of profit that banks make from fees charged. xiii Figure 12 highlights the factors expected to impact banks profits from fees, while figure 13 summarizes the results of the study. 12 ARE BANK FEES IN JAMAICA TOO HIGH?
15 Figure 12: Factors Expected to Impact the Extent to which Banks Profit from Fees PROFIT FROM FEES BANK CHARACTERISTICS COUNTRY CHARACTERISTICS SIZE + MULTI-MARKET + INDUSTRY CONDITIONS Financial Sophistication + Industry Concentration + Restrictive Regulation & Govt Interference + EXPENDITURES ON SERVICE PROVISION + INTEREST REVENUES - MACROECONOMIC VOLATILITY Exchange Rate Volatility - Inflation Rate Volatility + MANAGEMENT PERFORMANCE + Efficiency Solvency Liquidity Loan Quality NATIONAL CULTURE Strong Desire to Reduce Uncertainty + Influence of Powerful Lobby Groups - Competitiveness and Assertiveness - Source: Tennant and Sutherland (2012) ARE BANK FEES IN JAMAICA TOO HIGH? 13
16 Figure 13: Regression Results: Factors that Impact the Extent to which Banks Profit from Fees POSITIVE NEGATIVE BANK-SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS Size Multi-Market Expenditures on Service Provision Efficiency Solvency Liquidity BANK-SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS Interest Revenues MACROECONOMIC VOLATILITY Exchange Rate Volatility INDUSTRY CHARACTERISTICS Financial Sophistication Industry Concentration Restrictive Economic Regulations NATIONAL CULTURE Influence of Powerful Lobby Groups Competitiveness and Assertiveness MACROECONOMIC VOLATILITY Inflation Rate Volatility NATIONAL CULTURE Strong Desire to Reduce Uncertainty Source: Tennant and Sutherland (2012) 14 ARE BANK FEES IN JAMAICA TOO HIGH?
17 The results indicate that the international trend of increased profits from heightened bank fees is partially due to a proliferation of relatively large banks and banks that operate in more than one market. Banks which have been impacted by lowered interest revenues have also been shown to profit more from fees charged. These results seem to confirm popular opinions of such banks as being opportunistic and taking advantage of their size and market power. Other results, however, provide a more nuanced picture. In spite of having relatively low interest revenues, the banks that earn the most profit from their fee-based services tend to be well-managed institutions, maintaining high standards of efficiency, solvency and liquidity. These banks also seem to have positioned themselves to focus on fee-based activities, as they were shown to spend relatively large sums of money on building the technological capacity needed to offer extensive fee-based services. Note, however, that where banks incur increased costs in providing services, these costs are typically passed on to consumers through higher fees. The ease with which these costs are passed on to consumers is a function of the degree of competition in the financial sector. The results indicate that a lack of competition in numerous banking sectors across the world has increased the extent to which banks can profit from increased fees. Bank fees tend to be higher in financial sectors that are highly concentrated, that is, in which a few large banks control the lion s share of the total assets of the industry. Governments have also been shown to contribute to the trend of increased profits from fees. The results indicate that in countries where governments intervene in the normal functioning of the market, conditions are created in which relatively high profits from fees can be made. Such conditions are also created when governments are unable to reduce the volatility in their country s inflation rate. In countries where this occurs, banks tend to switch emphasis to fee-based activities so as to compensate for losses in interest revenue. Consumers also bear some responsibility for the international tendency towards heightened bank fees, as in many countries they are demanding increasingly sophisticated financial services. Banks cannot charge fees for services which they do not offer, and an opportunity to charge higher fees only exists where there is a demand for more sophisticated services. So fees have been shown to increase where consumers begin to demand more than just basic savings and loans products from banks, and utilize sophisticated services more heavily. The results also suggest that fee-based services are particularly heavily demanded in countries wherein there is a relatively high level of discomfort with unpredictability. This relationship exists because many fee-based services enhance the stability of the payments system. As examples, the risks of theft and not having adequate funds on hand are mitigated by the availability of debit cards and chequing accounts. Having access to a pre-determined and readily accessible line of credit through a credit card also reduces uncertainty. In countries where there is a high discomfort with unpredictability, there will be relatively high and inelastic demand for such services. These factors allow banks in such countries to charge higher fees and thus profit more from fee-based services. Such tendencies are, however, mitigated in countries where the national culture places a high value on the influence of powerful persons/groups in the society. In such countries, the typically strong adverse reaction of powerful consumer groups and politicians to high and increasing bank fees can act as a countervailing force to bank managers desire to maximize profit from fees. This is bolstered in countries wherein the strongly competitive and assertive nature of the society is unlikely to accept and foster conditions in which banks are allowed to earn high profits from fees. In spite of having relatively low interest revenues, the banks that earn the most profit from their fee-based services tend to be wellmanaged institutions, maintaining high standards of efficiency, solvency and liquidity. ARE BANK FEES IN JAMAICA TOO HIGH? 15
18 LESSONS FOR THE JAMAICAN GOVERNMENT In light of increasing public pressure on the Bank of Jamaica to do something about bank fees, we should note that the analysis of international trends indicates that some of the factors undergirding the current level of fees may be factors that a regulator may properly want to do nothing about. xiv For example: Regulators can do very little about the tendency of multinational banks to earn higher profits from fees. Very few regulators would seek to expel such banks from the market in an attempt to lower fees, and even if they did, the consequence would be lowered competition in the local banking sector, which has been shown to cause heightened fees; and Although higher standards of efficiency, solvency and liquidity, along with greater sophistication of the services supplied by the banking sector have been shown to be associated with higher profits from fees, regulators clearly would have no desire to reduce any such standards. We also find it necessary to highlight some actions that the above analysis indicates would be ill-advised: Proposals to cap fees have wisely been rejected in most countries. Regulators do not have any control over how banks internally allocate their costs between different products and services. Just as how the data showed that reduced net interest income led to increased reliance on fee income, a cap on fees is likely to cause banks to increase lending rates in a bid to maintain overall returns. This is quite possible in highly concentrated banking sectors with weak competition, and would adversely impact individuals and businesses through higher borrowing costs. The results also suggest that the increasingly popular efforts to force banks to provide customers with increased and more accurate and accessible information on fees could have undesirable side effects. As has recently occurred in the USA, if such requirements are perceived by banks as increasing the cost of service provision they may precipitate an increase in fees, as banks seek to pass on the increased costs to consumers. So what can be done about the increasing bank fees? The results suggest that lobbying efforts by powerful persons and groups in society can yield some fruit in countries where such groups are highly regarded, as can increased assertiveness by local consumers. Ultimately, however, increased competition in the banking sector is needed if fees are to be lowered on a sustained basis. The results also suggest that the increasingly popular efforts to force banks to provide customers with increased and more accurate and accessible information on fees could have undesirable side effects. 16 ARE BANK FEES IN JAMAICA TOO HIGH?
19 APPENDIX 1: SAMPLE SELECTION The accuracy of the comparative analysis conducted in this study is dependent on an unbiased, representative sample of banks being chosen. The sample selection techniques used in Tennant and Sutherland (2012) are adopted in this study. All bank-level variables are computed from data collated from the BankScope dataset, a global database with data on both bank and nonbank financial institutions. Only active commercial banks that had data available for all relevant variables for the year 2011were considered. xv Given available financing, data for a sample of 703 banks was accessed. xvi As illustrated in figure A1, in ensuring that the sample was representative of all commercial banks globally, a stratified sampling technique was utilized to select the countries from which the banks were drawn. xvii Countries with available data in BankScope were characterized according to two main strata; region and level of development. For selected countries with less than 50 commercial banks data was gathered on all banks that were listed in BankScope. For selected countries with more than 50 commercial banks, a sample of 50 banks, proportioned by asset size, was extracted. In the end, data was collated on a total of 703 commercial banks for which BankScope provided bank-level information in These banks were drawn from 46 countries within seven regions. The full sample of 703 banks was used in the regression analysis on the determinants of profits from fees charged. A sub-sample of approximately 400 banks from 40 countries was used in the preliminary cross-country comparisons of the eight commonly charged bank fees. This sub-sample was selected solely on the basis of data availability, as the BankScope database from which the full sample was drawn, did not provide data on the actual fees charged by banks. We collated this data for as many of the 703 banks previously selected as was possible. This data was collated using Internet searches and direct and telephone queries. Figure A1 Sample Selection Technique REGION Latin America and the Caribbean North America East Asia and the Pacific Europe and Central Asia Middle East and North Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT High Income Upper Middle Income Middle Income Low Income Is data available for more than 50 commercial banks in 2011 for the selected country? YES NO Select banks according to size of total assets 15 Largest Banks 20 Middle Banks 15 Smallest Banks Select all available banks Source: Tennant and Sutherland (2012) ARE BANK FEES IN JAMAICA TOO HIGH? 17
20 APPENDIX 2: REGRESSION ANALYSIS Tennant and Sutherland (2012) utilized hierarchical cross-country regressions to identify the characteristics of banks which profit the most from fees charged per dollar of deposits mobilized. They also highlighted the country level factors that influence the extent to which banks profit from fees charged. The economic model utilized in that study assumes that a bank s ability and proclivity to earn profits from fees is dependent both on its own characteristics and on the environment in which it operates. The bank characteristics that are expected to impact profit from fees include: (i) the size of the bank, wherein large banks tend to profit most heavily from fees; (ii) whether or not the bank operates in more than one local market, wherein multi-market banks are expected to charge higher fees than single-state banks; (iii) the costs which were incurred in the provision of the fee-based services, wherein banks with higher non-interest expenses are expected to have greater fee-earning capacity; (iv) the bank s interest revenues, as it is expected that when the potential to earn interest revenue is diminished, banks attempt to increase fee revenue in a bid to maintain profits; and (v) the degree to which the bank is well-managed, as a well-managed bank is likely to make higher profits. The efficiency, solvency, liquidity and loan quality of the bank are used as management indicators. The extent to which banks profit from fees is also dependent on the opportunities and challenges presented by the environment within which they operate. Tennant and Sutherland (2012) postulate that the major country-level factors that impact on profit from fees include the characteristics of the financial services industry within the country, the extent to which there is macroeconomic volatility, and the national culture. The industry characteristics expected to impact profit from fees include: (i) the sophistication of the services supplied in the respective banking industries, with greater sophistication presenting heightened opportunities to profit from fees; (ii) the degree of industry concentration, with greater concentration expected to heighten profits from fees due to lowered competition; and (iii) the restrictiveness of banking industry regulation and extent to which governments interfere in the financial sector, as such interference in the normal functioning of the market is likely to impede competition and result in situations wherein banks are able to earn supernormal profits. Macroeconomic volatility is captured through the inclusion of exchange rate and inflation volatility. Exchange rate volatility is expected to have a negative relationship with profit from fees, as such volatility increases uncertainty and risk. Conversely, inflation volatility is expected to have a positive relationship with profit from fees, as high levels of inflation volatility are likely to adversely impact banks interest revenues, which will cause them to rely more heavily on fee-based income. National culture is expected to impact profit from fees in a variety of ways. In countries that traditionally place a high value on the influence of powerful persons/groups in the society, and wherein individuals are highly assertive and competitive, fees are expected to be lower. This is due to the higher likelihood of vocal opposition to increased fees and greater proclivity of banks to acquiesce to such demands. Conversely, in countries where there is a high discomfort with unpredictability, the demand for feebased services that reduce uncertainty in transactions will be relatively high and inelastic. Banks in such countries are expected to charge higher fees and thus profit more from fee-based services. 18 ARE BANK FEES IN JAMAICA TOO HIGH?
21 ENDNOTES i Hannan (2005) ii Gross (2009) iii Samuda (2010) iv Gross (2009), Bruce (2008), Roseman (2007), Randewich (2007), Best (2011), Jamaica Observer (2011), id/ /banks_still_raising_feesmdashand_hiding_them_study, and v Data from the Bankscope database was used. vi Please see appendix for details as to how the sample was selected. vii The figure also seems to suggest that there was a larger increase for Jamaican banks than for other countries. This, however, may simply be as a result of the fact that the average for Jamaica was computed for a smaller number of banks, with less dispersion in the profits from fees, while the average for the other groupings of countries represents a smoothing across more widely varied ratios for banks in numerous countries. This is evidenced by the smaller standard deviation for Jamaican banks relative to banks from the other groupings. viii Please see appendix for details as to how the sample of banks was selected. ix Callen (2007). The IMF s Implied PPP Conversion rate is used in this paper. x These are fees that are charged when cheques that an individual deposits in his/her account bounce. xi Where a bank issues more than one credit card, the lowest annual fee is utilized for comparison. xii Which are incurred when banks allow overdrafts to occur on a customer s account without requiring his/her prior permission. xii Tennant and Sutherland (2012). Please see appendix 2 for details. xiv The lessons in this section are drawn from Tennant and Sutherland (2012). xv The year 2011 was the most recent year for which data were available when the data collection process initiated. xvi Funding was provided by the FirstCaribbean International Bank (FCIB) and University of the West Indies (UWI) Research Fund. xvii BankScope contained data on approximately 9856 commercial banks when we initiated our data collection. ARE BANK FEES IN JAMAICA TOO HIGH? 19
22 20 ARE BANK FEES IN JAMAICA TOO HIGH? NOTES
23 NOTES ARE BANK FEES IN JAMAICA TOO HIGH? 21
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